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سليمان سنوسي
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عدد المساهمات : 88
تاريخ التسجيل : 25/08/2011
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مُساهمةموضوع: بحث علمي حول الحيوانات   الخميس سبتمبر 22, 2011 2:05 am






Jellyfishes with the man, the animals form a very vast group of alive beings (a reign) very different by their form, their size, their habitat and their way of life

WHAT AN ANIMAL

In spite of their diversity, the animals have a certain number of common characteristics which make it possible to differentiate them from the other great reigns of the alive world (plants and mushrooms in particular :
– they are able to move: the majority of the animals go, run, swim, fly, jump... This characteristic radically differentiates them from the plants and the mushrooms, which are unable to be driven. However, there are some exceptions to this rule: some animals live fixed on a support and never move. It is the case for example sponges, corals, sea anemones or oysters
– they do not nourish by introducing their food (that they are plants or other animals). The mushrooms absorb by filaments in the ground, while the plants manufacture the components which they need thanks to the sunlight
– they have a nervous system and bodies of the directions (of the eyes, antennas, ears, etc), which enable them to perceive the external world
– finally, the animals are different from mushrooms and the plants on the level of their cells. An animal cell is not surrounded by a rigid wall (contrary with those of the plants and mushrooms), and does not contain chloroplasts like those of the plants


MILLION SPECIES

To date, more than 1,3 million animal species were listed in the world. But this figure is well below reality, because of many species are still unknown. Thus, of new species are discovered in particular among the insects and fish. In fact, the specialists estimate that there exists, undoubtedly, approximately 14 million animal species on our planet

WITH OR WITHOUT VERTEBRAE

One can divide the animals into two great groups: the invertebrates, which are animals without spinal column, and the vertebrate ones, which has one of them
In fact, the great majority of the animals are invertebrates. Indeed, on 1,3 million listed animals, only 56 200 are the vertebrate ones! The insects are particularly numerous: they represent, in all, the three-quarters of the animals of the Earth pets
Since the man started to domesticate animals, there are more than 10 000 years, some of them, initially used for work or to provide meat, acquired the role little by little to accompany it in its everyday life and to hold company to him
The dogs, for example, gradually were less and less used for their natural aptitudes (to drive out, to keep herds) and became members of the family with whole share. It is the same for the cats, domesticated in the beginning to drive out the rodents which devastated the reserves of grains















The man saw today surrounded by very many domestic animals. That was not always the case. The oldest successful traces of domestication go back to approximately 11000 years before J.-C., but the domestication of the animals especially developed from 8000 before J.-C., when the man started to become sedentary.
Previously, the prehistoric men who lived hunting, fishing and gathering, tamed sometimes a young savage animal, found at the time of a hunting. They made of it a pet or fattened it a few weeks... before eating it. To really domesticate an animal is much longer and difficult. Domestication does not relate to only one animal, but a group whose animals high and are selected according to qualities that one seeks (for example a protective character for the watchdogs or a great production of milk for a cow). During millennia, the species domesticates changes and becomes different from the wild species from which it results.

THE DOG, FIRST FRIEND OF THE MAN

The wolf was the first domesticated animal there are 11 000 to 13 000 years (between 11000 and 9000 before J.-C.), whereas the man still lived of hunting and gathering. By selecting the most flexible wolf cubs, the man made of them effective partners for hunting: they are the first dogs. Later, the man used the dog to keep his herds.
The domestication of the wolf occurred in a way independent at various times and in various areas of the world, which explains why there are so many so different races of dogs today (nearly 400!).

LARGE HERBIVORES FOR SE TO NOURISH AND TO GET DRESSED

The domestication of the large herbivores allowed to the men, once become sedentary to permanently have a reserve of food, and skin to dress itself. All started in Mesopotamia (current Iraq), 10 000 years ago. The first farmers of the area ceased driving out the muffling and the goat bezoars which lived in the mountains. They preferred to keep them and nourish them close to their houses, in order to have meat, milk and wool all the year. Little by little these two animals became the sheep and the goat servants. They also tested with the gazelle, but this one appeared too difficult to domesticate.
A little later, in the same area, of the men domesticated the aurochs (ox wild) and the wild boar (wild pig).
6 000 years ago, the horse was domesticated in its turn, in the steppes of the Ukraine, to assist the men for hunting... with the horse (at the time, one ate it as well as any game). Later, it was high for its meat.
small animals domesticated for their meat
In addition to the large herbivores, many small mammals were high like source of food. It is the case for example rabbit (in Spain, there is a little more than 1 000 years). The inhabitants of Peru, there is more than 3 000 years, raised the guinea-pig... to fatten it and eat it! Many birds were also domesticated: the duck (in China, 3 000 years ago), the hen (in India, 4 000 years ago), or the turkey (in Mexico, 2 500 years ago).

ANIMALS FOR THE TRANSPORT AND WORK OF FORCE

Strongest of the large herbivores domesticated for their meat and their skin were then used as mean of transport (as animal of goes up or to draw from the tanks or the carriages), or like auxiliary in the fields (to draw the plough for example): it is in particular the ox (which goes down from the aurochs), the ass, the horse.
Many other large herbivores were domesticated: the dromedary in Arabia (5 000 years ago), the camel in Iran and in Turkmenistan
(4 500 years ago), or the LAMA, on the plate of the Andes (6 000 years ago).
The Indian elephant, as for him, was domesticated there is nearly 5 000 years, because it is relatively easy to raise. There is more than 2 300 years, an emperor of India made already the war with an army of several thousands of elephants, which crushed its enemies! Today, the Indian elephants are used to push and trail loads in forest. They are also used as attraction for the tourists.

CARNIVORES TO DRIVE OUT THE RODENTS OR THE SNAKES
The reserves of grain of the first farmers attracted the rats and the mice. To keep these reserves, but also to eliminate certain dangerous animals (like the snakes), the man associated the services of a small carnivore very good hunter: the cat domesticated in the Middle East at least 9 500 years ago. But
there were also the genet in Europe, and the mongoose in India.

AND SOME INSECTS
Lastly, the man also knew to domesticate some insects. The silkworm (which is the caterpillar of a moth, the bomber of the mulberry tree), has been high in China for approximately 4 600 years for the silk whose its cocoons are made.
The man also managed to use with his profit the capacity of the bee to manufacture honey. Previously, it was necessary to collect honey at the top of the large trees. A difficult and dangerous activity! For 4 500 years approximately, the men have raised the bees in hives. Even if it is always necessary to be wary of the punctures, harvest became easier.




The dog goes down from the wolf. It was the first animal domesticated by the man, towards 11 000 before J.-C.

THE FIRST DOMESTIC ANIMAL

The wolves and the men, who drove out same game and occupied the same territory, initially cohabited. Little by little, the wolf agreed to let itself approach, then it helped the man to drive out and to be protected from the predatory ones.
When the man became sedentary, the dogs were used to keep the dwellings and the herds.
In ancient civilizations (Asian, Egyptian, Assyrian, Greek and Roman), the dogs were guards and companions, who accompanied the men with hunting and the war. The soldiers Sumerians thus had frightening mastiffs which they launched to the continuation of their enemies. The use of the dog in the wars never stopped besides, but, now, the dogs are especially assigned to the monitoring of the installations.
With the xxie century, the dog became one of the most widespread pets in the world, with the cat.


FROM OR THE VARIOUS RACES COME FROM DOG?

The first dogs resembled the wolf probably much. The races which we know today did not exist. Later, the man started to select the dogs or to cross them between them to obtain new races.
The selection consists in choosing dogs according to precise characteristics (for example size, peeling, sense of smell and capacity to locate game) then to make them reproduce to preserve or accentuate these characteristics. Gradually, the man obtained very different races. There are some today nearly 400.

WHICH ARE THE VARIOUS TYPES OF DOGS?

For a long time, the man has affected with the dogs a precise role: gun dog, sheepdog or watchdog.
Today, the majority of the dogs became pets, even if they preserved their natural instinct. Many races, like the Breton spaniel, the dachshund or the setter, continue to be used for hunting. Other dogs, like the briars or the shepherd of the Pyrenees, still keep the herds. Many dogs of company, like the German shepherd, the boxer or the Doberman pinscher, are also of very good watchdogs.
In addition, the man knew to use natural qualities of the dog to assist it in quite precise tasks. These animals are dogs of utility. They can guide the blind men, like Labrador, to draw from the sledges, like the husky or to save people at sea or mountain, the Newfoundland or the saint-Bernard. Their sense of smell also enables them to detect drug or explosives.










the training of the dogs guides

The dogs guides of blind men, like this German shepherd, receive a special drive to bring an effective help to the blind men





WITH WHEN DOES GO UP THE DOMESTICATION OF THE CAT?

The cats were not always of the pets. Appeared on Earth approximately 40 million years ago, the first cats lived in a wild state in Africa. One does not know exactly at which time their domestication started. It was believed a long time that the first to have domesticated the cats were the Egyptians, it is approximately 5 500 years old. But one thinks today that the cat became a companion of the man much earlier, at least 9 500 years ago, in the Middle East.

THE CAT, ADULATES IN OLD EGYPT

In the valley of the Nile, in Egypt, the cats are domesticated towards 3 500 before J.-C., approximately 5 500 years ago. At that time, the rodents are a true plague for harvests. The Egyptians raise then cats, predatory natural rodents, to protect their harvests.
The cat, which helps to protect harvests, is quickly considered by the Egyptians a crowned animal. It is deifies under the features of Basted, Egyptian goddess of the Joy and the Fertility. In old Egypt, to maltreat a cat is a crime liable to death. In the easiest families, some are sometimes mummifies and buried with their Master.

A REDOUTE ANIMAL AT THE AVERAGE AGE

Gradually, the cats spread themselves in Europe and their population increases. But at the Average Age, their destiny rocks. These small animals which live especially during the night worry and disturb. The black cat, especially, is regarded as an infernal creature related on the devil and sorcery. During the Average Age, much of cats finish on roughing-hew it.
Their fate improves when a terrible epidemic of plague devastates Europe in the medium of the xive one: by driving out the rats, which propagate the plague, they find a certain popularity. However, the xviie century should be waited so that the cat finds its place in the hearths.

A PET BECOME VERY POPULAR

At the xviiie century, the English impassion themselves for the cat, and create new races by means of the selection. Since, many cat-like clubs were created and of many races appeared in current xxe century.
One counts approximately 60 different races today, to hair runs like the Arthurian monk or the abyss in, with long hair like the Person one or Ankara, even without hair like the sphinx.
In France, the cats arrive at the second rank of the pets most represented: they are largely behind fish, but in front of the dogs.
a cat jumping
Like the cat-like savages, the domestic cats are very flexible and nimble. They kept for the majority the instinct of hunter of their ancestors.


















One counts today million pets in the world. In France, for example, there is in nearly 50 million, and in Canada, more than 15 million. They are mainly fish, dogs and cats, but also hamsters, rabbit, guinea-pigs or birds like the parrots or the parakeets

NEW PETS

Since a few tens of years, other animals made their appearance in the hearths. They are generally exotic animals: they are called new pets
The spiders, the iguanas or the snakes are among most current. These animals, which in nature refuse any contact with the
man, are not domesticated (as well as possible tamed). Many species are poisonous, like the my gales or the cobras, or dangerous, like the boa constrictor, the Varian or the tiger




PETS AND THREATENED SPECIES

Among the pets, many are those (except for the cats and the dogs) which belong to species threatened of disappearance in their natural environment, as well among the traditional pets (parrots and parakeets for example) as among NACC (it is the case of the cat-like savages like the panther, of all the monkeys, the iguanas, the crocodiles, the hippocampus
For certain species, for example the dogs of meadow or certain parrots or parakeets, there are breeding for the market of the pets. For others on the other hand, the animals are captured in nature, which increases the risk of disappearance of the species. This is why their trade and their capture are very regulated by international laws, in particular by Quote (Convention on the international trade of the species of flora and fauna savages threatened of extinction). For the most threatened species, it is interdict to capture, sell or have an animal
However, the increasing request for animals of this type encouraged the smuggling of animals, and the traffic of threatened species continues. It is thus necessary to be ensured, before acquiring an animal, which it comes well from a breeding (the salesman must provide a " certificate of birth"), or that its trade is authorized


the lion
The lion is the only cat-like one in which the male carries a mane (the females and the lion cubs do not have any). Its powerful howling can get along to 9 km with the round. It measures between 1,70 meter and 2,80 meters length without the tail, for a weight which can exceed 180 kg. The female is smaller: it measures to the more 1,75 meter length.
One primarily finds the lion in savannas of Africa. Indeed, the lion of Asia did not almost disappear (it does not exist any more but in one natural reserve, in India).


a lioness and its lion cubs
The lioness puts at the world every two years a range from 3 to 4 small. With the birth, the lion cubs have a mottled fur, but it becomes quickly of uniform color. They have also the blue eyes until the age of 2 or 3 months. In the males, the mane starts to push at the end of 1 year approximately.
The brothers and the sisters play between them and with their mother: the play is very significant to teach them the social relations and the gestures which they will need to drive out later. The lion cubs start to drive out with their mother at the 10 months age.






last lions of Asia
In Africa, the lion is a threatened species, and its populations decline. But in Asia, where it was formerly widespread, the situation is even more serious. Indeed, the lions of Asia do not survive any more but in one reserve of India (the park of Gir), where they are only approximately 250 adults.

lioness and lion cubs devouring a gnou
In the lion, in fact especially the females drive out. Their favorite preys are herbivores of big size, like the antelopes and the gnus. The meat is then divided between the members of the group. However, it happens that the lions nourish carrions, that they dispute with hymens and the vultures.

the tiger
The tiger is large cat-like of Asia. It is most powerful of the current carnivores. It can measure up to 2,80 meters length without the tail and weigh 300 kg. The female is smaller and lighter.


the tiger, a threatened species
The tiger is cat-like one to the only have an entirely striped peeling. It was driven out much for this splendid fur, which helps it to be camouflaged in the under woods of the forests. The tiger is a species in the process of disappearance, which rarefies always more.




the tiger with hunting
The tiger drives out very diverse animals. It has a preference for the large animals: stags, wild boars, gaurs (of Asian wild oxen), bears, young elephants or even crocodiles. However, if it does not find preys of big size, it drives out some smaller: monkeys, birds or of fish.
To locate its victims, it makes use more of its sense of smell and its sight that of its hearing. Hidden in grasses, it leaps in an extremely sudden way and precipitates on its prey.




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