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 The definition of computer

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تاريخ التسجيل : 25/08/2011
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مُساهمةموضوع: The definition of computer    الخميس سبتمبر 22, 2011 1:39 am

The definition of computer
Is an electronic device designed to receive a manner that allows data and saved and treated by converting data into usable information and extract the desired results of the decision-making and also can know that machine to process the information and data in accordance with accounting electronic system, using a particular language and this machine can implement many of the orders stored quickly High
The commonly used recently in various fields of life and demonstrated high efficiency and provided the effort, time and costs, which helped to consider its potential use in educational fields was launched on the computer, including several Arabic names (computer, electronic and computer, computer) to the fact that the name derived from the verb England TO COMPUTE sense calculated, as was also the mind-mail and computer despite the fact that it is built primarily on mathematical logic, however, that he is leading processors and other sports sports, and here he is not thinking only.
The user sees computer proficiency and accuracy and speed of delivery and multiple possibilities and user-friendly as it is implementing the orders of the rights of all operations but is only drawn by the post in advance when developing the program and is the most important feature of modern times, everything around us can be managed through which it is used in All bodies and educational institutions is in the hands of man machine can be used to improve or misused

Computer components
- Hard ware hardware devices are all associated with computer monitor, a keyboard and other
- Soft ware software is used in computer programs: educational programs, programs that use the library.
- Information Data, a group of data input or output.
Computer consists of units for Foreign Affairs of the phenomenon of internal units that are not used as follows:
First: external units: _
1 - Keyboard: a unit enter information, data and figures to be addressed within the computer as required.
2 - mouse or function: the optical signal is moving on the screen and mark the desired requirements and are easier to use their keys in bringing about the desired impact.
3 - Scanner: a unit is the introduction of electronic editing work cutting or cut the images and text to a computer.
4 - Printer: a unit outputs Print out the texts and cartoons.
5 - the computer screen: the user can screen the possibility of considering all the work and the different types and forms.
Second: The internal computer units: _
A) hard drives, floppy disks: The data warehouse does not have wiped the memory and magnetic recording permanent temporary memory is always a figure larger in the specifications of your computer, the CD is defined by means of a flexible diameter.
B) Processor: editor is concentrated around the system, a computer system that controls the mind in all its operations.

Computer capacity
Computer is not measured by volume, but measured in terms of memory or more of these storage capacity was capable of handling the largest and most difficult, if the computer information processing Processing must be given instructions language he understands, and the language stored in the memory of the bilateral system of any number of groups (zero) The figure (one), and also because the system itself does not understand the language but understand two things: (closed Circle / Open Service) like a bulb Kahr epidemiological lit and extinguished the key, and the (zero / one) are the crossings on the case, the two key ingredients of computer language , Hence it can be said that the language of a Machine Language is the abbreviation of the cases of zero and one.

Examples of computer languages
Computer languages designed for the safety of a liaison with a high-level languages built on the specific rules associated with limited English vocabulary used in most organs as a series of instructions that achieve the desired goal and called (the program) was invented languages for the programming process , The oldest and simplest language Alfoertran language Alpesc this time also the language of languages and language Alkopoul Alpascal, the languages of the CIA and the CIA Plus Plus and modern languages, we find the CIA and Sharp Java language and artificial intelligence Allisp (90 percent of the programs designed by artificial intelligence) and Anizq Albrooellouk language and the language and the language Logo ( Any PLN) and others.

Educational uses of computers
Used computers in the education field for several reasons, including that it provides an opportunity for students to learn according to the active nature of the technology known prevailing in the society in the present and look to the future and that the enormous potential of computers contribute to the development of educational administration and special registration and schedules of study and examinations and results, and others.
The computer that will contribute to improving the educational processes individualize themselves through education and programming development of educational materials and systems delivery.
Studies have shown increased academic achievement in computer-aided learning and learning his way commensurate with other methods, and improve the education of students with experience in low-and Batiiin learning, as demonstrated by studies to reduce the time to learn computer time than it takes in the traditional way that improves the trends towards The use of computers in teaching positions and whether some of the results of these scientific studies, the production companies and some educators say almost the same results but different formulas are examples in this area put your computer to help students find themselves and enjoy the education and non-negative, including the student interaction and activity And the participation and help in the coordination of hand and eye and working on individual learning at the rate and encourage innovative thinking has been Alfaragani, Abdul Azim and education functions of the computer into two areas:
1) The use of computers in educational management. (CMI) _1
2) The use of computer assistant in the teaching process. (CAI) _2

By the computer systems
There are many computer systems that can be summarized by the following:

1) Dialogue:
Systems which are based on the indicative Kamwalim private strategy, based on information exchange through dialogue between the student and computer program raises the question and answer student and computer correct responses were given the right way Carbonell in 1970 in English and teaching strategies launched by the individual.
2) how to resolve the problem:
This method derived from the theory of Piaget and research of artificial intelligence and the Babert in 1973 and relies on a computer as an intermediary for the program, which is attended by students demanding a high degree of skill, and often provides computer language Logo and provide an example to the students to avoid errors and attempts to involve students in the writing program can be used This method from the age of 12 years.
3) mathematical models:
This method attempt to use the statistical method of treatment in sports theories and the learning process is not required to be here in the learning of mathematics, it is possible that learning vocabulary in sports.
The application of this method depends on the show's response to the combined method of erosion-related responses, was submitted Lopes and Chaing 1974 model in the case of consecutive All three represent a learning related words had the potential to be forgotten,
They pointed to the model building should be on the extent of our knowledge and our expectation for student information private and style of learning and emphasized the need for feedback expected by the model building and then determine the vocabulary to be learned, classify and identify the required number of words learned in each session, all previously affected by the model building form The way these factors.

4) computer assistant learning:
Computer assistant in education was adopted to provide some training and exercises and practices that require a different standard functions to answer the questions contained, as well as on
The same questions the student main goal is to create a skilled student through continuous training examples is a new resolution and therefore up to proficiency in learning and has been used Palmrooold Houphouët 1975 computer assistant in education for this purpose, are a way of education and the mastery of computer programs to provide education and the most important plans The Alfaragani also mentioned, Abdul Azim, in the area of computer assistant in education as follows:

• television project for linking the computer.
• Draft teaching operation automatically.
• method of simulation (simulation).
• Linear Programming and family.

Some computers and software used in the areas of education:


One of the most important software used in the field of education:
1 - Program (MS-WIN-WORD)
This program is one of the most used programs for word processing in educational institutions and enabled teachers to use the program in all disciplines and the importance of the educational program in a work the following skills: (print texts _ Co-ordinate the development of the ability to think in creative writing) and other skills useful In life.
2_ Program (MS-EXCEL)
Used in the tabular data used in the education sessions statistical technique, and letters of mechanical and materials business can be done by way of graphics
3_ Program (MS-ACCESS)
Used for databases, files and the preparation, organization and information retrieval and extraction
4 - Program (AUTO CAD)
Used in the work of engineering drawing, maps and the program easy to produce complex graphics with different dimensions and gain projection educated and skilled in engineering drawings of the model home.
5 - Program (3D-STUDIO)
Used to work in the event of mobile graphics drawing architectural and engineering design work and innovative multi-display.
6 - Program (CORAL DRAW)
Used for painting the hand as it allows the learner to change shape, dimensions, size and color. Used to serve the art of decoration and interior design and fashion design.
Educational program at Action must be taken into account the following:
1) clear instructions to use the program.
2) To approve the content of the program with specific objectives.
3) the sequence of logical and psychological content.
4) and clearly written text (content) and divided into paragraphs properly.
5), the information provided with the skills learned through the program.
6) create an active interaction between learner and the program provides enhanced through.
7) that the program is flexible (complex tracks) so as to allow the learner to move from one to the other easily within the program.

The between-Far, Ibrahim Abdul Wakil (It has been shown to most computer users experience the process in many developed countries that computer education - if used in the right place at the time - can achieve excellent results in the classroom. This, in turn, include training teachers to use To represent the technology so they can plan appropriate and report the appropriate place and time required to reach teachers and students alike to master the skills and scientific facts and concepts contained
Computer educational reasons:
The main reasons for the use of computer education as stated by the "leader, Ibrahim Abdul Wakil":
And the rise of educational materials.
The inability of traditional methods.
Simulation (simulation).
Interactive learning.
Increase the effectiveness of education.
Source of information.
Appointed to study the different materials.
Training to acquire skills and education of individual and collaborative.
Almbarip demonstration and for the purposes of scientific research.
Education scarcity (eg the decisions of quantum mechanics, and epidemiology).
Integration of systems and other supply by controlling the management and operation of devices.
Technical word processing (editing).
Reading and conservation issues.
Banks tests (drafting different models of tests).
Artistic creation (painting, design, etc.).
Musical creativity (music education theories).
Tool to detect and creativity (behavioral control and proficiency).
The development of problem-solving skills.
Teaching and distance learning.
Shortage of teachers.
Used in educational games.
Assistant in the education of persons with disabilities,

The use of computers in education
The basic functions of the computer education are:
1) design educational programs developed to achieve the goals of educational and behavioral.
2) reduce the time and effort to reduce the teacher and learner.
3) multiple sources of knowledge of the multiplicity of programs that can be provided by the system of one student or several students for education in conclusion.
4) the ability to store quantities of specific knowledge and speed recovery while ensuring the accuracy of the article raised.
5) the learning process and the presence of elements of right and wrong ((promotion)) to the well-educated method of self-evaluation.
6) the diversity of ways in providing information and redress.
7) the appropriateness of each group of students and educational material particular.
Cool the systematic organization of the creative thinking of the learner.
9) individualize the educational process - through self-learning.

Computer and the process of teaching and learning
Administration result of successful multi-function computer for the public and private institutions have been subjected to computer education and learning work in the following areas:
First: self-learning through structured education curriculum materials and various active educational methodology.
Second: the art of educational institutions such as schools and universities.
Third: coordination of administrative work in educational institutions.
In the self-learning, is a fertile source computer learning from writers and recorded tapes and films of educational television and videos and other educational equipment and materials.
When mastered the learner to deal with a computer and identify ways in which learning is found in its stomach preparation of substantive content regulator of the cognitive process and humanitarian issues with how to deal with each program, in light of learning through cloning with right and wrong, promotion and self-evaluation, since the result would be educated And inclusive understanding of the educational magazine article "" software "."
The student can solve exercises programmed in advance by the teacher identified as ways DEPOSITED resolved and the results, along with all this there is entertainment programs and games entertainment available in the commercial market.
Operations are learning through computers shorter time and less effort and the results valid, that role has been able effectively to meet the problems multiple computers in educational institutions such as lack of educational materials and a shortage of qualified teachers also came in response to technological advancement, which is prevailing in the world and contribute to the development of life and improving working methods.

Guidance in computer-aided teaching
The education program consists of a series of several points have been carefully designed to lead students to become proficient in less time one of the issues before the start of errors in the use of the program used to follow the following instructions:
1) to clarify the educational objectives to be Thakeha of the program.
2) inform students about the time available for learning on the computer.
3) provide students with the most important concepts or experiences that need to focus and collect in the course of learning.
4) explained the steps that followed a student to complete the program and identify all the materials and tools, which students can use for the completion of a study program.
5) The definition of how to assess student achievement of the types of education required.
6) Identification of activities to be performed by the student after completing the learning program.
7) delivery of each student the appropriate version of the program, and tell him for a device used by the
Cool when starting the computer using several student responses to enter the program, then enter the computer in a dialogue with the learner who used the program where to ask questions or problems on the student's turn to answer each question or a problem

The educational benefits of computers and assets
Allows computer education for students learning by speed.
The time can be spent learning in the learning process in this way less than other conventional methods.
The response of good learner offset promote and encourage by the computer.
It is patient, and students can use the weak educational program over and over again without boredom
Students can be vulnerable to correct their mistakes without feeling ashamed of their colleagues.
It provides color, music, film, which makes the learning process more fun.
The computer can provide well-educated students, regardless of the availability of the teacher whether or not they want at any time in any post

Disadvantages and disadvantages computer education
The computer education is still a costly process must take into account the costs of education through the computer balance the benefits to be derived from that in terms of education and training has become a computer maintenance problem, especially if these devices were for the permanent use.
There is a great lack of availability of educational programs and high-level versions that can be done without the prior consent of the rightful owners in addition to the lack of appropriate programs of the Arab curricula.
The educational programs that have been designed for use with some kind of hardware can not be used with other hardware.
The process of designing educational programs for example, is the process: an educational lesson a half-hour needed to be more than fifty hours of work.

Computer Assistant
Quick overview of the educational uses of computers and computer assistant is clear that education is the most presence in education so far and despite all the efforts made and spent huge budgets are still full of programs to develop education and Tafrida in his first computer is also clear that Assistant Integration relied on education Other teaching aids.
And multi-use computers in the educational process where they could be used as an educational or performance or as a catalyst in the educational process or assistant in management education and here we computer assistant in education.
Assistant computer programs in education, although it began in the sixties, however, that there are no specialized programs in the decisions that can be relied on to disseminate widely here is either to resort to special programs or begin the introduction of computers in the administrative aspects Falcmpiotr the current situation that can contribute effectively In educational management and development of systems such as follow-up and preparation of tables and statistics and monitoring and examinations for the Advancement of graph Foundation and forecasting the future and the needs of others. This is a starting point and a starting point for the introduction of computers in education

Computers to poor people
At the outset, the idea of providing a cheap computer is required and necessary, because most of the world's population lack access to computers to regular high price, perhaps because their countries impose taxes on goods increasing the price rise, access to the Internet right now everyone is quite as access to food, clothing, housing, It is not fair that the resources and sources concentrated in rich countries and for the benefit of their people only, and does not reflect the peoples and nations in others who are unable to pay huge sums for them to buy a computer and access to the Internet.

The second point is about price, the price of the fact that the computer is still high, with the screen Vsaara about the current regular prices of computers that can be bought one at $ 199 must reduce its price up to $ 200 with the screen at the most, and even this rate will remain high for many Of the world's population, and perhaps if AMD used the free Linux system instead of WinCE rate went down to a little bit.

The third point is the screen, why should you buy a special screen to deal with this computer? Must be provided special access to connect the computer with television, in poor countries may not have computers or in the family car, but you often have to find their Tlvaze must exploit this to reduce costs to a minimum












Internet is a data-processing network which connects computers of the whole world between them to exchange information . the data are
transmitted via telephone lines. Of cables or satellites.
To communicate between them , the computers connected to internet use a common language(named protocol)and are equipped with software (or programs)allowing the data exchange.





1presentation
Internet international telemetric network of American origin. To date constituting the wide-area network of the world, Internet is accessible to the professionals as with the private individuals.
2 HISTORICAL
Internet results from the network Arpanet, which was conceived in the years 1960 by the ARPA (Advance Research Project Agency) for the American department of Defense. In the beginning, it is about a co-operative network of computers allowing the division of data stored on distant waiters, as well as the exchange of electronic messages (e-mail). Network of military use, Arpanet extends then gradually to the American universities in the years 1970, in particular the University of California (UCLA) and the university of Stanford, before being replaced in 1990 by Internet network, being intended initially for civil research. In 1991, Tim Burners-Lee of the CERN in Geneva develops the interface of Internet called World Wide Web, which makes it possible to open the network with general public by simplifying the consultation procedures of the sites. In January 1992, Internet Society (ISOC) is born with for objective promoting and coordinating the developments on Internet. The year 1993 sees the appearance of the first navigator or but nor (browser), supporting the text and the images. This same year, the NSF (the National Science Foundation) elects a company to record the domain names.
From a technological point of view, Tim Burners-Lee, the inventor of the Web, creates in 1994 the consortium W3C (World Wide Web Consortium), which aims to support networking on the Web, i.e. the development of standards. For example, the W3C will propose in 1998 the standard XML (extensible Markup Language), which defines a language of beaconing extended for the Web (see HTML, language).
Today, Internet makes it possible to any individual to reach a multitude of data presenting itself under various formats: texts, data bases, images, sounds (MP3), videos, etc. It offers many services to the professionals, as with the private individuals: to reserve a hotel in Asia, to install an advertising insert in the United States, to consult the car catalogues of manufacturers, to place from the orders, to buy or sell with the biddings a good, to visit museums, to obtain official information, etc
3 ACCESS
To reach Internet network, the user must have a computer, a commutated telephone line (or, in the case of the large companies, of the universities and other research centers which requires a permanent connection, a specialized line), a modem or a chart network, a kit of connection to consistent Internet in an access to a local area network (the provider) connected to Internet or a subscription near a supplier of access Internet (AOL, Wanadoo, Club-Internet, etc). In addition, for " surfer " on Internet, the user must also have of a software of navigation (Netscape or Explore being most known) helping it to traverse the sites of the network, and possibly a software of electronic messaging allowing him to send or receive electronic mail.
Information present on Internet network, generally, is published in pages with format HTML (Hypertexts Markup Language). This format allows the introduction into the text of bonds other pages or other sites, called " bonds hypertexts ". These bonds make it possible " to sail " in Internet network. Another format tends to develop on Internet: format XML (extended Markup Language). In addition to the possibilities offered by format HTML, language XML allows to better structure information and to clearly separate the form and the contents.
The significant quantity of information in any kind makes sometimes difficult navigation and fast research. This is why certain sites have search engines, tools making it possible to launch a research by a word or an expression on all Internet sites listed by this system, and to thus find the documents likely to contain the information wished by the user.
4 PROTOCOLS
Internet is used as support with several protocols and services: Ftp (File Transfer Protocol) for the sump, file transfer (remote loading) (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) for the electronic communication with other people (e-mail), NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol) for the sending and reception of public mails, HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) for the protocol of transmission hypertext, Web for the publication of information, etc
To make function this vast network, Internet implements communications protocols. The two basic protocols are TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and IP (Internet Protocol). They are referred under term TCP/IP. TCP recovers information to be transmitted, IP transforms them into packages and delivers them with the layer in charge of transport (electronic component).
However, it fast development of Internet on a worldwide scale currently involves a revision and an evolution of these protocols, which come very close to saturation.
Internet how it goes
Internet is a data-processing network which connects computer of the whole world between them and which enables them to exchange information. . The data are transmitted via telephone lines, of cables or satellites.

For Internet a user reaches must have a modem and be subscribed with a supplier D access.
The modem is an apparatus which makes it possible to receive and to send data e-mail
music video texts etc by the intermediary telephone dune line one
of a caballed supplier of access the role of door of entry to the c' network plays is him which puts in contact the computer of an subscriber with the whole of the other computer connected to Internet a faith connected to ' Internet, each computer becomes him same a potential waiter being able to put all kinds of data kinds of data has the provision of the Net surfers enkindle Internet network includes/understands routers who determine the best way to convey the data the use of Internet network presents unfortunately certain risks. many data-processing viruses circulate there and can damage the data stored on a computer. consequently is necessary to install
( to update) a program ant virus on its computer before being connected to Internet.
connections subscribed, supplier of access are represented in green on the diagram; all other gray (en connections). correspond to very simplified Internet network.

WHAT THE WORLD WIDE WEB?
The term " World Wide Web " (often shortened in WWW or Web) means " world cobweb " in French. It is a gigantic whole of said electronic pages Web pages, connected between them by bonds hypertexts. It is enough to click on a bond to be directed towards a new page. Information of these pages can appear in the form of texts, of images, sound or video. Each page belongs to a Web site, which is a whole of pages created by a private individual, a company or an organization.
To reach Web pages, a navigator is used (or English browser). A navigator is a software which in particular makes it possible to consult search engines. These engines are very useful to find information, because there are today several hundreds of million Web pages By typing one or more key words, one obtains a list of pages containing required information.
The Web is not only used to find information. It allows inter alia recovering (or downloading) electronic files, buying or to sell objects. In addition, the amateurs of video games can, thanks to Internet, to face many other players in the whole world.

Tim Burners-Lee: the inventor of the Web
Timothy Burners-Lee is the creator of the Web, which it develops at the end of 1980, to allow his/her colleagues physicists of the CERN (European Laboratory of physics of the particles), where he was a researcher, to quickly exchange data and images, where which they are in the world.

The scientific council of the organization, first of all not having shown a great consideration for his invention, did not give to the project of the young engineer the adequate economic support. The development of the Web was not possible that thanks to the interest of the French physicist Robert Caillau, also enquiring with the CERN.
In 1993, Burners-Lee leaves this organization to go to 3rd tats-Plain, where it teaches the data processing and sciences of the communication in Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). It founded and directs the World Wide Web Consortium, an association gathering of the companies and the private individuals wishing to promote a sure and democratic development of the fabric.
HOW CAN ONE BE SENT MESSAGES ON INTERNET?
The electronic mail makes it possible to send an electronic message (also called e-mail) to one or more Net surfers. For that, it is enough to know the electronic address (or addresses e-mail) that to which one sends the message and to be equipped with a software of transport. This software makes it possible to type text and to join a file to its message. If it is connected to Internet, the correspondent receives the message after a few seconds or a few minutes (according to the flow of the lines of connection). The use of the electronic mail can sometimes present risks. Indeed, of many data-processing viruses are transmitted by electronic messaging and can damage the data stored on the computer.
To communicate, the Net surfers can also find themselves in shows of discussion (also invited " cat " —to pronounce " chat"). These shows allow two or several people to exchange messages in real time. It is enough for that to be connected to a Web site or to install a software on its computer.
Resources and Links
The Internet becomes different things to different users. It might be the e-mail connection with a family member posted or living on the other side of the globe, or even in Freeville. Internet might be a source of entertainment and companionship through a chat line. Internet is the largest assembly of information the world has ever seen. Yes, some of the information is untrue, even libelous and slanderous.
Whatever your preferred use of the Internet is, you most likely use a GUI (Graphic User Interface) pronounced "gooey"; which is a software program between you and the Internet. The most common of these Internet Browsers are: Microsoft Internet Explorer and Netscape which began life as Mosaic.
Before we had these easy to use browsers, we used arcane DOS or UNIX commands beginning with "ATDT", just to wake up the MODEM (Modulate Demodulate) device to convert computer code into the shrill squawking noise that passes over common telephone wires.
Now we simply double click on an Icon to dial our ISP (Internet Service Provider), unless we are already connected to the Internet through a server such as used in the schools and colleges and larger companies. In some areas, we have Internet service through the local cable vision company. Your computer is connected through a special cable modem instead of through a phone line modem.
Better Internet Connections
Cable modems deliver Internet at blazing speed compared with our slothful 5K per second delivery through a 56K modem. Once addicted to cable, you will never be enticed back to telephone delivery unless the phone company provides a much faster ADSL service, which works well, if within 5 miles of the central distribution point. The advantage of ADSL, is that you are always on line, so there is no waiting time as your computer dials up (Dial-Up Service). The disadvantage of being online full time, is that you need to install a firewall software program to prevent hackers from viewing or altering your computer files.
Fastest of all service, is wireless internet, which should be available in Pincher Creek in late 2001 or early 2002. This technology uses radio waves transmitted from a tower, up to 30 miles (50 km) distant to communicate via an antennae and wireless receivers on your computer. This is not the same technology, which uses a digital phone as the connection device, as they are more expensive to operate, and are very slow.
Browsing The Internet
Internet browsers such as Microsoft Internet Explorer, Netscape and Opera, are common software programs that allow us to navigate through the internet by selecting choices, "Poking Buttons".
Screen shot, buttons not active.

After connecting to the Internet, you click on your favorites browser which immediately begins downloading whichever Web page has been designated as your Home page. You can always return to that page by clicking on the <HOME> button. In Explorer, under <TOOLS> <Internet Options>, you can key in your preferred home web page. In Netscape Communicator, go to <EDIT> <Preferences> to set your <HOME> web page. If you installed your Internet communication package with a CD provided by TELUS, they have set the TELUS page as home page.
Both Explorer and Netscape are available over the Internet as free downloads. Be prepared for a long download time which varies according to Internet traffic. Early morning is much faster than later in the day when kids get home from school. Sunday evening is particularly slow. After downloading the program(s), they will painlessly self install and preserve your mail address book in the new version.
your navigation icon to change form, usually from an arrow to a pointing hand. One click takes you to the next website.There is a <HOME> button to take you back to where you first started, so no need to get hopelessly lost of the Internet. That's enough information to start you off on a surfing expedition.
Free E-Mail
If you have access to the Internet, but don't have an e-mail account, you can register for a free account by going to...
Hotmail.com
Other software is available to use over the Internet. ICQ is a standalone program that you can download free, sign up for and use. It is a communication device that allows you to talk directly with other ICQ members, leave them messages or enter a chat room. The program runs in the background on your computer allowing other members to hale you if you are on line. It can be invasive to your privacy and time consuming if you heed the calls.
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The definition of computer
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